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Oracle 11gR2 + ASM + spfile (eng)


Oracle 11gR2 have many new futures in Grid Computing area. One of them is Oracle Local Repository (OLR), this repository designed to store information and profiles for local resources, resources that dedicated to particular node. It improves the performance of accessing local resources profile information, redundancy and manageability. In Grid Infrastructure RAC configuration there is usual one global shared OCR and OLR’s on each node. In Oracle Restart environment there is only OLR repository. In 11g R2 there is also new feature, Grid Plug and Play (GPNP), as the name implies, it helps to automate and simplify some of the aspects of grid administration. GPNP maintains profile, it is XML file that stores the configuration information of some components maintained by GPNP, for example vips and interconnect information is stored here.

But in this post, I wont to discuss another new feature of 11g R2, it is the possibility to store the server parameter file (spfile) on the ASM disks, also for ASM instance itself! And there is some reasonable questions arise:

  1. How process can read the spfile from ASM disks, if they are not mounted yet
  2. How process knows where to get spfile if there is no init.ora file in $ORACLE_HOME/dbs with spfile=[path to spfile] parameter
  3. What about asm_diskstring parameter?

Third point is important for ASM instance because, before reading spfile from ASM disks, we need to identify them, to identify them we need spfile to get asm_diskstring parameter!

To make clear all this points I will use system calls tracing tools, to trace oracle processes. We can use tools like Dtrace, strace, truss and so on, it depends on platform, I will use strace because I am on Linux.

My environment is Oracle Grid Infrastructure 11g R2 (11.2.0.1.0) in Oracle Restart mode. I simulated ASM disks using loop devices, /dev/loop*, I have 5 disks

bash> /etc/init.d/oracleasm listdisks
DISK1
DISK2
DISK3
DISK4
DISK5

SQL> conn / as sysasm
Connected.
SQL> col path format a15

SQL> select a.name,a.state,b.name,b.path from v$asm_diskgroup a, v$asm_disk b where a.group_number=b.group_number order by b.name;

NAME                           STATE       NAME                           PATH
------------------------------ ----------- ------------------------------ ---------------
DGROUP1                        MOUNTED     DISK1                          ORCL:DISK1
DGROUP1                        MOUNTED     DISK2                          ORCL:DISK2
DGROUP2                        MOUNTED     DISK3                          ORCL:DISK3
DGROUP2                        MOUNTED     DISK4                          ORCL:DISK4
DGROUP2                        MOUNTED     DISK5                          ORCL:DISK5

As seen from the listing, I have two disk groups DGROUP1 and DGROUP2. My spfile is located on DGROUP1

SQL> show parameter spfile;

NAME                                 TYPE        VALUE
------------------------------------ ----------- ----------------------------------------------------
spfile                               string      +DGROUP1/asm/asmparameterfile/registry.253.740659373

Lets make some tests

SQL> conn / as sysasm
Connected.

SQL> startup
ASM instance started

Total System Global Area  284565504 bytes
Fixed Size                  1336036 bytes
Variable Size             258063644 bytes
ASM Cache                  25165824 bytes
ASM diskgroups mounted
SQL>
SQL> show parameter power

NAME                                 TYPE        VALUE
------------------------------------ ----------- ------------------------------
asm_power_limit                      integer     1
SQL> alter system set asm_power_limit=3;

System altered.

SQL> show parameter power

NAME                                 TYPE        VALUE
------------------------------------ ----------- ------------------------------
asm_power_limit                      integer     3

SQL>--We set asm_power_limit to 3 in spfile

SQL> shutdown immediate;
ASM diskgroups dismounted
ASM instance shutdown

SQL> !crs_stat -t
Name           Type           Target    State     Host
------------------------------------------------------------
ora.DGROUP1.dg ora....up.type OFFLINE   OFFLINE
ora.DGROUP2.dg ora....up.type OFFLINE   OFFLINE
ora....ER.lsnr ora....er.type ONLINE    ONLINE    testdb03
ora.asm        ora.asm.type   OFFLINE   OFFLINE
ora.cssd       ora.cssd.type  ONLINE    ONLINE    testdb03
ora.diskmon    ora....on.type ONLINE    ONLINE    testdb03

SQL>-- Lets start instance in nomount mode, it will not mount the diskgroups

SQL> startup nomount;
ASM instance started

Total System Global Area  284565504 bytes
Fixed Size                  1336036 bytes
Variable Size             258063644 bytes
ASM Cache                  25165824 bytes

SQL> show parameter spfile;

NAME                                 TYPE        VALUE
------------------------------------ ----------- ----------------------------------------------------
spfile                               string      +DGROUP1/asm/asmparameterfile/registry.253.740659373

SQL> show parameter power

NAME                                 TYPE        VALUE
------------------------------------ ----------- ------------------------------
asm_power_limit                      integer     3

SQL> select * from v$spparameter;
select * from v$spparameter
              *
ERROR at line 1:
ORA-15001: diskgroup "DGROUP1" does not exist or is not mounted

SQL> alter system set asm_power_limit=10;
alter system set asm_power_limit=10
*
ERROR at line 1:
ORA-32000: write to SPFILE requested but SPFILE is not modifiable

SQL> !asmcmd
ASMCMD> ls
ASMCMD> exit

SQL> !crs_stat -t
Name           Type           Target    State     Host
------------------------------------------------------------
ora.DGROUP1.dg ora....up.type OFFLINE   OFFLINE
ora.DGROUP2.dg ora....up.type OFFLINE   OFFLINE
ora....ER.lsnr ora....er.type ONLINE    ONLINE    testdb03
ora.asm        ora.asm.type   ONLINE    ONLINE    testdb03
ora.cssd       ora.cssd.type  ONLINE    ONLINE    testdb03
ora.diskmon    ora....on.type ONLINE    ONLINE    testdb03

So, what we see, we were able to start ASM instance without mounting the disks, our process picked up correct spfile. The command SHOW PARAMETER reads the parameter values from the memory, but if we try to read directly from spfile (select from v$spparameter) or write to it (alter system set) we will get errors, because diskgroups not mounted yet. It means that our process was read spfile directly from ASM disks. The design about from which disk to read it made based on information from disk header. I use ASMlib, and my asm_diskstring parameter is equal to default value null, ASM instance by default scans the /dev/oracleasm/disks/* on Linux, that is why process found my disks properly. But what if we use HP-UX and our disks is multipathing disks in /dev/rdisk/*, ASM will not scan them by default, we need to use asm_diskstring parameter, how our process will read asm_diskstring parameter before accessing spfile?

Lets start sqlplus, after we will connect as sysasm it will initialize server process, this process will do all job, that is why I will trace this server process

bash> sqlplus /nolog
SQL> conn / as sysasm
Connected.
SQL> !ps -aefH
.
.
oracle   15505  4255  0 13:26 pts/1    00:00:00           sqlplus
oracle   15507 15505  0 13:26 ?        00:00:00             oracle+ASM (DESCRIPTION=(LOCAL=YES)(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=beq)))
.
.
SQL>

Our server process number is 15507, now I will use strace to trace it

bash> strace -o userproc.out -p 15507

start the instance with nomount option, OCSSD must be running, or instance will not start

SQL> startup nomount;

Total System Global Area  284565504 bytes
Fixed Size                  1336036 bytes
Variable Size             258063644 bytes
ASM Cache                  25165824 bytes

SQL>

Now we can analyze the contents of the userproc.out, I will not list all contents, just useful parts of it

First row is

read(9, "001\6\3\212\6\376\377\377\377\1\376\377\377\377\376\377\377\377"..., 8208) = 49

it is our “startup nomount” command transmitted to server process from sqlplus by socket

connect(6, {sa_family=AF_FILE, path="/var/tmp/.oracle/sOCSSD_LL_testhost_"...}, 110) = 0
open("/u01/oracle/product/grid11g/auth/css/testdb03/A6857753/84b0b692", O_WRONLY|O_CREAT|O_EXCL, 0644) = 13
write(13, "\nS\336[", 4)                = 4
close(13)

from this lines we can see that our process connects to socket file of OCSSD /var/tmp/.oracle/sOCSSD_LL_testhost_ to communicate with it and authenticates itself. That is why it impossible to start instance without OCSSD, if process could not connect to this socket, it would fail. Then it establishes communication with OHASD (Oracle High Availability Services Deamon) through the socket file /var/tmp/.oracle/sCRSD_UI_SOCKET, after exchange messages with OHASD it will get information about the location of spfile and asm_diskstring parameter

access("/var/tmp/.oracle/sCRSD_UI_SOCKET", F_OK) = 0
connect(14, {sa_family=AF_FILE, path="/var/tmp/.oracle/sCRSD_UI_SOCKET"...}, 110) = 0
open("/u01/oracle/product/grid11g/auth/ohasd/testdb03/A4972914/5140f6df", O_WRONLY|O_CREAT|O_EXCL, 0644) = 15
write(15, "\20\7\3519", 4)              = 4
close(15)
write(14, "4\2\2\1\1\1\1\3\1T\235\376\t"..., 52) = 52
write(14, "8\3\2\1\1\1\1\4\1T\235\376\t"..., 56) = 56
read(14, "8\3\2\1\1\1\1\3\1T\235\376\t"..., 32768) = 56
write(14, "\212\1PC\v\2\2\5\1T\235\376\t"..., 394) = 394
read(14, "\366\nPC\v\2\2\4\1T\235\376\t"..., 32768) = 2806
write(14, "0\2\20\1\1T\235\376\t"..., 48) = 48

write(3, "kggpnpSIHAGetItem 1 = +dgroup1/ASM/asmparameterfile/registry.253.740659373"..., 75) = 7
write(3, "kfspFileNameGet name=+dgroup1/ASSM/asmparameterfile/registry.253.740659373"..., 78) = 78

write(3, "kggpnpSIHAGetItem 2 =  ", 23) = 23
write(3, "kgfspb_shallow_discover dscstr=\"\""..., 33) = 33

As we can see our process got spfile location (+dgroup1/ASM/asmparameterfile/registry.253.740659373) and asm_diskstring="" which is null by default from OHASD. Now, lets see where OHASD itself gets this information. To identify that I traced the OHASD process, and I found this lines

open("/etc/oracle/olr.loc", O_RDONLY) = 4
read(4, "olrconfig_loc=/u01/oracle/produc"..., 4096) = 108
read(4, "", 4096)                       = 0
close(4)                                = 0
open("/u01/oracle/product/grid11g/cdata/localhost/testhost.olr", O_RDONLY|O_SYNC|O_LARGEFILE) = 4
pread64(4, "\1\202VD\31\4\3OCR\226\361nA"..., 4096, 102400) = 4096
pread64(4, "\1\202\300I#\4\3OCR\226\361nA"..., 4096, 143360) = 4096
pread64(4, "\1\202VD\31\4\3OCR\226\361nA"..., 4096, 102400) = 4096
pread64(4, "\1\202hq\33\4\3OCR\226\361nA"..., 4096, 110592) = 4096
pread64(4, "\1\202\271\311#\4\20\3OCR\226\361nA"..., 4096, 4337664) = 4096
pread64(4, "\1\202\276\262$\4\20\3OCR\226\361nA"..., 4096, 4341760) = 4096
pread64(4, "\1\202VD\31\4\3OCR\226\361nA"..., 4096, 102400) = 4096
pread64(4, "\1\202hq\33\4\3OCR\226\361nA"..., 4096, 110592) = 4096
pread64(4, "\1\202\271\311#\4\20\3OCR\226\361nA"..., 4096, 4337664) = 4096
pread64(4, "\1\202\276\262$\4\20\3OCR\226\361nA"..., 4096, 4341760) = 4096
pread64(4, "\1\202\236\363%\4\2\3OCR\226\361nA"..., 4096, 4345856) = 4096
pread64(4, "\1\202\334\n&\4\2\3OCR\226\361nA"..., 4096, 4349952) = 4096
pread64(4, "\1\202\325\357-\4\2\3OCR\226\361nA"..., 4096, 4378624) = 4096
pread64(4, "\1\202VD\31\4\3OCR\226\361nA"..., 4096, 102400) = 4096
pread64(4, "\1\202hq\33\4\3OCR\226\361nA"..., 4096, 110592) = 4096
pread64(4, "\1\202\271\311#\4\20\3OCR\226\361nA"..., 4096, 4337664) = 4096
pread64(4, "\1\202\276\262$\4\20\3OCR\226\361nA"..., 4096, 4341760) = 4096
pread64(4, "\1\202\325\357-\4\2\3OCR\226\361nA"..., 4096, 4378624) = 4096

As one would expect OHASD reads this information from OLR, the path to it, it gets from /etc/oracle/olr.loc. I want to note that it is true for Oracle Restart mode, in Oracle RAC environment information is stored in GPNP profile and there is GPNPD process that maintains and manages this profile information. In Oracle Restart, as we can see OHASD process executes this role, and because there is no PGNP profile it stores information in OLR file. So, what next? Our process starts to scan all disks to identify ASM headers, after identifying them, it identifies which disks belongs to which diskgroups by information from header. There is many other metadata in the ASM diskheader that it reads, including pointers to spfile and votig disk file, it is kfdhdb.spfile, kfdhdb.spfflg (first block and number of blocks) and kfdhdb.vfstart, kfdhdb.vfend (begin block and end block). It is possible to read disk header using kfed utility from $ORACLE_HOME/bin directory. For example, lets read disk header of the /dev/loop1 which corresponds to ORCL:DISK1, spfile is on this disk.

shell> kfed read /dev/loop1 | more
kfbh.type:                            1 ; 0x002: KFBTYP_DISKHEAD --Indicates that this is ASM disk header
.
kfdhdb.grptyp:                        2 ; 0x026: KFDGTP_NORMAL --Indicates mirroring level, in my case it is NORMAL
kfdhdb.hdrsts:                        3 ; 0x027: KFDHDR_MEMBER --Indicates that disk is the member disk of diskgroup
.
kfdhdb.dskname:                   DISK1 ; 0x028: length=5 --Disk name
kfdhdb.grpname:                 DGROUP1 ; 0x048: length=7 --Disk group name, to which this disk belongs
kfdhdb.fgname:                    DISK1 ; 0x068: length=5 --To which failure group this disk belongs
.
kfdhdb.secsize:                     512 ; 0x0b8: 0x0200 --Disk sector size
kfdhdb.blksize:                    4096 ; 0x0ba: 0x1000 --Disk block size
kfdhdb.ausize:                  1048576 ; 0x0bc: 0x00100000 --Allocation Unit size, by default 1M
.
kfdhdb.vfstart:                       0 ; 0x0ec: 0x00000000 --Begin block address of voting disk file
kfdhdb.vfend:                         0 ; 0x0f0: 0x00000000 --End block address of voting disk file
kfdhdb.spfile:                       59 ; 0x0f4: 0x0000003b --Begin block address of spfile
kfdhdb.spfflg:                        1 ; 0x0f8: 0x00000001 --Number of blocks containing spfile

Now, lets see what will be next steps of our process

open("/opt/oracle/extapi/32/asm/orcl/1/libasm.so", O_RDONLY) = 17
read(17, "\177ELF\1\1\1\3\3\1000\v004"..., 512) = 512
close(17)                               = 0
open("/dev/oracleasm/.query_version", O_RDWR|O_LARGEFILE) = 17
write(17, "MSA\2\1\20", 16) = 16
read(17, "MSA\2\1\20", 16) = 16
close(17)                               = 0
open("/dev/oracleasm/.get_iid", O_RDWR|O_LARGEFILE) = 17
write(17, "MSA\2\2\30", 24) = 24
read(17, "MSA\2\2\30\3", 24) = 24
close(17)                               = 0
open("/dev/oracleasm/.check_iid", O_RDWR|O_LARGEFILE) = 17
write(17, "MSA\2\3\30\3", 24) = 24
read(17, "MSA\2\3\30\3", 24) = 24
close(17)                               = 0
open("/dev/oracleasm/iid/0000000000000003", O_RDWR|O_CREAT|O_LARGEFILE, 0770) = 17

open("/dev/oracleasm/disks/DISK1", O_RDONLY|O_LARGEFILE) = 18
read(17, "MSA\2\5 \22T/v\17\200-%\310", 32) = 32
close(18)                               = 0
read(17, "MSA\2\7P@\364\311\20\320\301\225\277"..., 80) = 80
open("/dev/oracleasm/disks/DISK2", O_RDONLY|O_LARGEFILE) = 18
read(17, "MSA\2\5 \22T/v\17\200+%\310", 32) = 32
close(18)                               = 0
read(17, "MSA\2\7P@\364\311\20\320\301\225\277"..., 80) = 80
open("/dev/oracleasm/disks/DISK3", O_RDONLY|O_LARGEFILE) = 18
read(17, "MSA\2\5 \22T/v\17\200!%\310", 32) = 32
close(18)                               = 0
read(17, "MSA\2\7P@\364\311\20\320\301\225\277"..., 80) = 80
open("/dev/oracleasm/disks/DISK4", O_RDONLY|O_LARGEFILE) = 18
read(17, "MSA\2\5 \22T/v\17\200#%\310", 32) = 32
close(18)                               = 0
read(17, "MSA\2\7P@\364\311\20\320\301\225\277"..., 80) = 80
open("/dev/oracleasm/disks/DISK5", O_RDONLY|O_LARGEFILE) = 18
read(17, "MSA\2\5 \22T/v\17\200)%\310", 32) = 32
close(18)                               = 0

read(17, "MSA\2\7P@\364\311\20\320\301\225\277"..., 80) = 80
read(17, "MSA\2\7P@\364\311\20"..., 80) = 80
read(17, "MSA\2\7P@\364\311\20"..., 80) = 80
read(17, "MSA\2\7P@\364\311\20"..., 80) = 80
read(17, "MSA\2\7P@\364\311\20"..., 80) = 80
read(17, "MSA\2\7P@\364\311\20"..., 80) = 80
.
.

open("/u01/oracle/diag/asm/+asm/+ASM/trace/alert_+ASM.log", O_WRONLY|O_CREAT|O_APPEND|O_LARGEFILE, 0660) = 16
write(16, "Tue Jan 18 17:45:13 2011\n", 25) = 25
write(16, "Starting ORACLE instance (normal"..., 33) = 33
write(16, "\n", 1)                      = 1
close(16)
.
.

It opens /opt/oracle/extapi/32/asm/orcl/1/libasm.so library, reads it. Then it opens special files /dev/oracleasm/.query_version, /dev/oracleasm/.get_iid and /dev/oracleasm/.check_iid, this files is interfaces to ASM device manager. First one is used to get managers version, second one is used to get identifier of the ASM disk device manager instance (not ASM instance) and third for verifying of this instance identifier. In our case ASM device managers instance identifier is 0000000000000003. Then, our process opens /dev/oracleasm/iid/0000000000000003, in other words it establishes connection to the ASM device manager instance. Process will use this interface to read and write to ASM disks. Then it checks all disks from DISK1 to DISK5. After it gets all information about disks, i.e. groups, mirroring level, AU size, failure group and so on it starts reading ASM disk through established interface. I think in this step it reads the spfile. After it gets initialization parameters it starts to allocate memory structures and starting necessary background processes.

Now lets see what is stored in OLR regarding ora.asm resource

shell> cd $ORACLE_HOME/cdata/localhost
shell> strings testhost.olr  | grep dgroup1/ASM/asmparameterfile/registry | sed 's/~/\n/g'
DEFAULT_TEMPLATE=PROPERTY(RESOURCE_CLASS=asm) ELEMENT(INSTANCE_NAME= %GEN_USR_ORA_INST_NAME%)
DEGREE=1
DESCRIPTION=Oracle ASM resource
ENABLED=1
GEN_USR_ORA_INST_NAME=+ASM
LOAD=1
LOGGING_LEVEL=1
NAME=ora.asm
NLS_LANG=
NOT_RESTARTING_TEMPLATE=
OFFLINE_CHECK_INTERVAL=0
PROFILE_CHANGE_TEMPLATE=
RESTART_ATTEMPTS=5
SCRIPT_TIMEOUT=60
SPFILE=+dgroup1/ASM/asmparameterfile/registry.253.740659373
START_DEPENDENCIES=hard(ora.cssd) weak(ora.LISTENER.lsnr)
START_TIMEOUT=900
STATE_CHANGE_TEMPLATE=
STOP_DEPENDENCIES=hard(ora.cssd)
STOP_TIMEOUT=600
TYPE=ora.asm.type
TYPE_ACL=owner:oracle:rwx,pgrp:dba:rwx,other::r--
UPTIME_THRESHOLD=1d
USR_ORA_ENV=
USR_ORA_INST_NAME=+ASM
USR_ORA_OPEN_MODE=mount
USR_ORA_OPI=false
USR_ORA_STOP_MODE=immediate
VERSION=11.2.0.1.0

We can found there information about spfile "SPFILE=+dgroup1/ASM/asmparameterfile/registry.253.740659373", we also can see that ora.cssd is hard dependency resource, because OCSSD is responsible for synchronization between ASM and database instance. But what about asm_diskstring parameter, where is it?

shell> strings testhost.olr  | grep ASM_DISKSTRING | sed 's/~/\n/g'

nothing, it is because my asm_diskstring parameter equals to null, default value, lets change it

SQL> alter system set asm_diskstring='ORCL:DISK1,ORCL:DISK2' scope=spfile;

System altered.

check OLR file again

strings testdb03.olr  | grep ASM_DISKSTRING | sed 's/~/\n/g'
bASM_DISKSTRING
ACL=owner:oracle:rwx,pgrp:dba:rwx,other::r--
ACTION_FAILURE_TEMPLATE=
ACTION_SCRIPT=
AGENT_FILENAME=%CRS_HOME%/bin/oraagent%CRS_EXE_SUFFIX%
ALIAS_NAME=
ASM_DISKSTRING=ORCL:DISK1,ORCL:DISK2
AUTO_START=restore
BASE_TYPE=ora.local_resource.type

Now we can see that information about asm_diskstring is also stored in OLR profile. And next time, at ASM instance startup it will scan only specified disk strings. If we specify disks on which spfile not present, our instance will not start

SQL> alter system set asm_diskstring='ORCL:DISK3,ORCL:DISK4,ORCL:DISK5' scope=spfile;

System altered.

SQL> startup nomount force;
ORA-01078: failure in processing system parameters
ORA-01565: error in identifying file '+DGROUP1/asm/asmparameterfile/registry.253.740659373'
ORA-17503: ksfdopn:2 Failed to open file +DGROUP1/asm/asmparameterfile/registry.253.740659373
SQL>

You can also use the ocrdump utility to extract this entries on any platform in XML format:

shell> ocrdump -local -keyname SYSTEM.OHASD.RESOURCES.ora\!asm.CONFIG -xml -noheader
shell> more OCRDUMPFILE

SYSTEM.OHASD.RESOURCES.ora!asm.CONFIG
<value_type>ORATEXT
ASM_DISKSTRING=ORCL:DISK3,ORCL:D
ISK4,ORCL:DISK5~AUTO_START=restore~BASE_TYPE=ora.local_resource.type~CHECK_INTERVAL=1~CHECK_TIMEOUT=600~DEFAULT_TEMPLATE=PROPERTY(RESOURCE_CLASS=asm) ELEMENT(INSTANCE_NAME= %GEN_USR_ORA_INST_NAME%)~DE
GREE=1~DESCRIPTION=Oracle ASM resource~ENABLED=1~GEN_USR_ORA_INST_NAME=+ASM~LOAD=1~LOGGING_LEVEL=1~NAME=ora.asm~NLS_LANG=~NOT_RESTARTING_TEMPLATE=~OFFLINE_CHECK_INTERVAL=0~PROFILE_CHANGE_TEMPLATE=~RES
TART_ATTEMPTS=5~SCRIPT_TIMEOUT=60~SPFILE=+dgroup1/ASM/asmparameterfile/registry.253.740659373~START_DEPENDENCIES=hard(ora.cssd) weak(ora.LISTENER.lsnr)~START_TIMEOUT=900~STATE_CHANGE_TEMPLATE=~STOP_DE
PENDENCIES=hard(ora.cssd)~STOP_TIMEOUT=600~TYPE=ora.asm.type~TYPE_ACL=owner:oracle:rwx,pgrp:dba:rwx,other::r--~UPTIME_THRESHOLD=1d~USR_ORA_ENV=~USR_ORA_INST_NAME=+ASM~USR_ORA_OPEN_MODE=mount~USR_ORA_O
PI=false~USR_ORA_STOP_MODE=immediate~VERSION=11.2.0.1.0~]]>
<user_permission>PROCR_ALL_ACCESS
<group_permission>PROCR_NONE
<other_permission>PROCR_NONE
<user_name>oracle
<group_name>dba

So, draw conclusions, gentlemen!


(c) Aychin Gasimov, 01/2011, Azerbaijan Republic


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44 responses to “Oracle 11gR2 + ASM + spfile (eng)

  1. Levi Pereira January 27, 2011 at 00:28

    Very good…Thanks

  2. Pingback: Unlocking: How startup instance ASM with SPFILE stored in your own ASM Diskgroup « Levi Pereira

  3. Pingback: Unlocking: How startup instance ASM with SPFILE stored in your own ASM Diskgroup « Levi Pereira

  4. Pingback: Unlocking: How the ASM instance starts with SPFILE stored in your own ASM Diskgroup « Levi Pereira

  5. Maritza Keena June 14, 2011 at 13:57

    Have you ever thought about writing an ebook or guest authoring on other websites? I have a blog based upon on the same information you discuss and would really like to have you share some stories/information. I know my audience would appreciate your work. If you’re even remotely interested, feel free to shoot me an e mail.

  6. Surender July 12, 2011 at 15:27

    Imp info..Thanks a lot.

  7. John July 14, 2011 at 22:12

    Hi

    crsctl stat res ora.asm -p | grep ASM_DISKSTRING
    ASM_DISKSTRING=

    Although there is no pfile or spfile under $ORACLE_HOME/dbs and
    asm diskstring parameter is not set, I can sucessfully start the asm instance.
    How come this happen ?

    SQL> startup
    ORA-32004: obsolete or deprecated parameter(s) specified for ASM instance
    ASM instance started

    Total System Global Area 284565504 bytes
    Fixed Size 1343692 bytes
    Variable Size 258055988 bytes
    ASM Cache 25165824 bytes
    ASM diskgroups mounted
    ASM diskgroups volume enabled

  8. John July 14, 2011 at 22:17

    sorry about above question

    I just read your post carefully and realized that
    if we use asmlib, and my asm_diskstring parameter is equal to default value null, ASM instance by default scans the /dev/oracleasm/disks/* on Linux, that is why process found my disks properly

  9. John July 14, 2011 at 22:51

    Hi

    I am using asmlib.
    Asm instance is using the spfile in asm and Asm instance doesnt have spfile or init.ora in $Oracle_home/dbs.
    I can successfully start the asm instance and mount the disk groups.

    [oracle@vm2 dbs]$ crsctl stat res ora.asm -p | grep ASM_DISKSTRING
    ASM_DISKSTRING=
    [oracle@vm2 dbs]$ crsctl stat res ora.asm -p | grep SPFILE
    SPFILE=+DATA/asm/asmparameterfile/registry.253.756597771

    SQL> startup
    ORA-32004: obsolete or deprecated parameter(s) specified for ASM instance
    ASM instance started

    Total System Global Area 284565504 bytes
    Fixed Size 1343692 bytes
    Variable Size 258055988 bytes
    ASM Cache 25165824 bytes
    ASM diskgroups mounted
    ASM diskgroups volume enabled

    Here is my question:

    I am unable to start the database instance without init.ora pointer under $oracle_home/dbs

    . oraenv
    orcl

    SQL> show parameter spfile

    NAME TYPE VALUE
    ———————————— ———– ——————————
    spfile string +DATA/orcl/parameterfile/spfil
    e.266.755839187

    [oracle@vm2 dbs]$ crsctl stat res ora.orcl.db -p | grep SPFILE
    SPFILE=+DATA/ORCL/PARAMETERFILE/spfile.266.755839187

    I realized that there is a init.ora pointer in $oracle_home/dbs

    [oracle@vm2 dbs]$ cat initorcl.ora
    SPFILE=’+DATA/ORCL/PARAMETERFILE/spfile.266.755839187′ # line added by Agent

    If I remove this pointer, I am unable to start the database instance.

    mv initorcl.ora initorcl.ora_bkp

    SQL> startup
    ORA-01078: failure in processing system parameters
    LRM-00109: could not open parameter file ‘/oracle/11gR2/product/11.2.0/dbhome_1/dbs/initorcl.ora’

    The database starts up successfully if I run below command because an init.ora pointer was created automatically and put in $ORACLE_HOME/dbs.

    crs_start ora.orcl.db

    [oracle@vm2 dbs]$ ls -l initorcl.ora
    -rw-r–r– 1 oracle oinstall 78 Jul 15 22:19 initorcl.ora
    [oracle@vm2 dbs]$ cat initorcl.ora
    SPFILE=’+DATA/ORCL/PARAMETERFILE/spfile.266.755839187′ # line added by Agent

    Why does the database instance require a initora pointer which points spfile ? Is this mandotary ?
    I can successfully start the asm instance without init.ora pointer however for the database, it requires an init.ora pointer.
    I am really confused.

    Appreciate your assistance.

    • aychin July 18, 2011 at 06:09

      Hi John,

      Sorry for delay, I was on a trip :)
      I was read Your comment. I don’t have testing environment at the moment, to make some checks, but I will write my personal opinion about this. I think that Oracle programmers made changes in the source code that affects the instance_type ASM, because to give it capability to start from the asm formatted disks it was Mandatory to make this changes. For instance_type RDBMS it was not mandatory, at least what you will do if You didn’t installed Grid Infrastructure, I mean that RDBMS doesn’t require OLR to function but ASM requires it! I think they didn’t touch this part of code that responsible for identifying the place of spfile. And as we know, by default, it checks for spfileSID.ora then for initSID.ora for parameter “spfile”. They didn’t change the source code for this not mandatory feature, to read lcation of spfile directly from OLR, but they made some kind of automation by adding the line into initSID.ora, I think it is better than nothing :) May be, in the future releases they will make it similar to the ASM instance type.

      • john July 20, 2011 at 08:15

        Many thanks for your reply and preparing this article.
        Thanks again for sharing your knowledge with oracle users.

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  11. Pingback: VMCD.ORG » Blog Archive » 11gR2 rac ora.asm error (ASM)

  12. Pingback: Where is my Oracle ASM Instance spfile? « me + oracle

  13. Yoel Susanto July 20, 2012 at 06:26

    Hi Aychin,
    just wanna say thanks for the article! It helped answer my question.
    I hope you don’t mind I link your article in my blog.

    Cheers,

  14. KumarTG September 12, 2012 at 12:15

    Hi Aychin,
    Great info! Thanks for sharing it!

    I have simulated the scenario of moving “OLR” file and tried starting up the ASM instance.
    I was able to “nomount” the ASM instance successfully.

    i have a question –

    – As you mentioned above “OHASD” process gets the info of spfile location from “OLR” file.
    In this case i have moved the OLR file.

    How did process gets the spfile info?
    Can you please throw some light on this?

    Steps –>

    $ cd /oracle/app/11.2.0/grid/cdata/localhost

    $ mv temp-dba01.olr temp-dba01.olr.bkp

    $ pwd

    /oracle/app/11.2.0/grid/cdata/localhost

    $ ls -altr

    total 2844
    drwxrwx— 4 grid oinstall 4096 Aug 14 10:55 ..
    -rw-r—– 1 grid oinstall 272756736 Aug 14 10:55 local.ocr.bkp
    drwxr-x— 2 grid oinstall 4096 Sep 12 15:24 .
    -rw——- 1 grid oinstall 272756736 Sep 12 15:50 temp-dba01.olr.bkp

    [grid@temp-dba01 gpnp]$ crsctl stat resource -t
    ——————————————————————————–
    NAME TARGET STATE SERVER STATE_DETAILS
    ——————————————————————————–
    Local Resources
    ——————————————————————————–
    ora.DATA.dg
    OFFLINE OFFLINE temp-dba01
    ora.DG1.dg
    OFFLINE OFFLINE temp-dba01
    ora.FRA.dg
    OFFLINE OFFLINE temp-dba01
    ora.LISTENER.lsnr
    ONLINE ONLINE temp-dba01
    ora.asm
    OFFLINE OFFLINE temp-dba01 Instance Shutdown
    ora.ons
    OFFLINE OFFLINE temp-dba01
    ——————————————————————————–
    Cluster Resources
    ——————————————————————————–
    ora.cssd
    1 ONLINE ONLINE temp-dba01
    ora.diskmon
    1 ONLINE ONLINE temp-dba01
    ora.evmd
    1 ONLINE ONLINE temp-dba01
    ora.orcl.db
    1 OFFLINE OFFLINE Instance Shutdown
    ora.tmp.db
    1 OFFLINE OFFLINE

    1st session –

    $ sqlplus / as sysasm

    SQL*Plus: Release 11.2.0.2.0 Production on Wed Sep 12 15:26:31 2012

    Copyright (c) 1982, 2010, Oracle. All rights reserved.

    Connected to an idle instance.

    SQL>

    2nd session –

    $ ps -ef|grep -ri ASM

    grid 15480 12057 0 15:26 pts/1 00:00:00 sqlplus as sysasm
    grid 15481 15480 0 15:26 ? 00:00:00 oracle+ASM (DESCRIPTION=(LOCAL=YES)(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=beq)))
    grid 15631 15486 0 15:45 pts/2 00:00:00 grep -ri asm

    $ ps -ef|grep -ri ohasd

    root 3618 1 0 Sep09 ? 00:00:29 /bin/sh /etc/init.d/init.ohasd run
    grid 12290 1 0 09:27 ? 00:00:02 /oracle/app/11.2.0/grid/bin/ohasd.bin reboot
    grid 15638 15486 0 15:46 pts/2 00:00:00 grep -ri ohasd

    $ strace -o usr_asm.out -p 15481

    3rd session –

    $ strace -o usr-ohsd.out -p 12290

    1st session –

    SQL> startup nomount;
    ASM instance started

    Total System Global Area 283930624 bytes
    Fixed Size 2225792 bytes
    Variable Size 256539008 bytes
    ASM Cache 25165824 bytes

    SQL> show parameter spfile;

    NAME TYPE VALUE
    ———————————— ———– ——————————
    spfile string +DATA/asm/asmparameterfile/reg
    istry.253.793279291
    SQL>

    $ crsctl stat res -t
    ——————————————————————————–
    NAME TARGET STATE SERVER STATE_DETAILS
    ——————————————————————————–
    Local Resources
    ——————————————————————————–
    ora.DATA.dg
    OFFLINE OFFLINE temp-dba01
    ora.DG1.dg
    OFFLINE OFFLINE temp-dba01
    ora.FRA.dg
    OFFLINE OFFLINE temp-dba01
    ora.LISTENER.lsnr
    ONLINE ONLINE temp-dba01
    ora.asm
    ONLINE ONLINE temp-dba01 Started
    ora.ons
    OFFLINE OFFLINE temp-dba01
    ——————————————————————————–
    Cluster Resources
    ——————————————————————————–
    ora.cssd
    1 ONLINE ONLINE temp-dba01
    ora.diskmon
    1 ONLINE ONLINE temp-dba01
    ora.evmd
    1 ONLINE ONLINE temp-dba01
    ora.orcl.db
    1 OFFLINE OFFLINE Instance Shutdown
    ora.tmp.db
    1 OFFLINE OFFLINE

    Thanks,
    Kumar TG

    • aychin September 12, 2012 at 12:36

      Hi Kumar!

      First of all try ti restart OHAS on this server and check again.
      > crsctl stop has
      > crsctl start has

      • KumarTG September 13, 2012 at 06:37

        Hi Aychin,
        Thanks for quick response!

        I tried stopping and starting the “OHASD” process , i was unable to start the “OHASD” process
        and got below mentioned error.
        But after copying the “OLR” location i was able to start “OHASD” process.

        How OHASD process gets the SPFILE info if “OLR” file was missing but CRS was running?

        Steps –>

        $ crsctl stat res -t
        ——————————————————————————–
        NAME TARGET STATE SERVER STATE_DETAILS
        ——————————————————————————–
        Local Resources
        ——————————————————————————–
        ora.DATA.dg
        OFFLINE OFFLINE temp-dba01
        ora.DG1.dg
        OFFLINE OFFLINE temp-dba01
        ora.FRA.dg
        OFFLINE OFFLINE temp-dba01
        ora.LISTENER.lsnr
        ONLINE ONLINE temp-dba01
        ora.asm
        ONLINE ONLINE temp-dba01 Started
        ora.ons
        OFFLINE OFFLINE temp-dba01
        ——————————————————————————–
        Cluster Resources
        ——————————————————————————–
        ora.cssd
        1 ONLINE ONLINE temp-dba01
        ora.diskmon
        1 ONLINE ONLINE temp-dba01
        ora.evmd
        1 ONLINE ONLINE temp-dba01
        ora.orcl.db
        1 OFFLINE OFFLINE Instance Shutdown
        ora.tmp.db
        1 OFFLINE OFFLINE

        $ crsctl stop has

        CRS-2791: Starting shutdown of Oracle High Availability Services-managed resources on ‘temp-dba01′
        CRS-2673: Attempting to stop ‘ora.LISTENER.lsnr’ on ‘temp-dba01′
        CRS-2673: Attempting to stop ‘ora.evmd’ on ‘temp-dba01′
        CRS-2673: Attempting to stop ‘ora.asm’ on ‘temp-dba01′
        CRS-2677: Stop of ‘ora.asm’ on ‘temp-dba01′ succeeded
        CRS-2673: Attempting to stop ‘ora.cssd’ on ‘temp-dba01′
        CRS-2677: Stop of ‘ora.cssd’ on ‘temp-dba01′ succeeded
        CRS-2673: Attempting to stop ‘ora.diskmon’ on ‘temp-dba01′
        CRS-2677: Stop of ‘ora.LISTENER.lsnr’ on ‘temp-dba01′ succeeded
        CRS-2677: Stop of ‘ora.diskmon’ on ‘temp-dba01′ succeeded
        CRS-2677: Stop of ‘ora.evmd’ on ‘temp-dba01′ succeeded
        CRS-2793: Shutdown of Oracle High Availability Services-managed resources on ‘temp-dba01′ has completed
        CRS-4133: Oracle High Availability Services has been stopped.

        $ crsctl start has

        CRS-4563: Insufficient user privileges.
        CRS-4000: Command Start failed, or completed with errors.

        Log –> /oracle/app/11.2.0/grid/log/temp-dba01/client/crsctl_grid.log

        2012-09-13 09:42:29.978: [ OCRMSG][1886348816]prom_waitconnect: CONN NOT ESTABLISHED (0,29,1,2)
        2012-09-13 09:42:29.978: [ OCRMSG][1886348816]GIPC error [29] msg [gipcretConnectionRefused]
        2012-09-13 09:42:29.978: [ OCRMSG][1886348816]prom_connect: error while waiting for connection complete [24]
        2012-09-13 09:42:29.979: [ OCROSD][1886348816]utopen:6m': failed in stat OCR file/disk /oracle/app/11.2.0/grid/cdata/localhost/temp-dba01.olr, errno=2, os err string=No such file or directory
        2012-09-13 09:42:29.979: [ OCROSD][1886348816]utopen:7: failed to open any OCR file/disk, errno=2, os err string=No such file or directory
        2012-09-13 09:42:29.979: [ OCRRAW][1886348816]proprinit: Could not open raw device
        2012-09-13 09:42:29.979: [ default][1886348816]a_init:7!: Backend init unsuccessful : [26]

        $ sqlplus / as sysasm

        SQL*Plus: Release 11.2.0.2.0 Production on Thu Sep 13 09:46:55 2012

        Copyright (c) 1982, 2010, Oracle. All rights reserved.

        Connected to an idle instance.

        SQL> startup nomount;

        ORA-01078: failure in processing system parameters
        ORA-29701: unable to connect to Cluster Synchronization Service

        SQL>

        — Copy the OLR file to original location (/oracle/app/11.2.0/grid/cdata/localhost)

        $ mv temp-dba01.olr.bkp temp-dba01.olr

        $ crsctl start has

        CRS-4123: Oracle High Availability Services has been started.

        $ crsctl stat res -t
        ——————————————————————————–
        NAME TARGET STATE SERVER STATE_DETAILS
        ——————————————————————————–
        Local Resources
        ——————————————————————————–
        ora.DATA.dg
        ONLINE ONLINE temp-dba01
        ora.DG1.dg
        ONLINE ONLINE temp-dba01
        ora.FRA.dg
        ONLINE ONLINE temp-dba01
        ora.LISTENER.lsnr
        ONLINE ONLINE temp-dba01
        ora.asm
        ONLINE ONLINE temp-dba01 Started
        ora.ons
        OFFLINE OFFLINE temp-dba01
        ——————————————————————————–
        Cluster Resources
        ——————————————————————————–
        ora.cssd
        1 ONLINE ONLINE temp-dba01
        ora.diskmon
        1 ONLINE ONLINE temp-dba01
        ora.evmd
        1 ONLINE ONLINE temp-dba01
        ora.orcl.db
        1 OFFLINE OFFLINE
        ora.tmp.db
        1 OFFLINE OFFLINE

        $ ps -ef|grep pmon
        grid 26596 1 0 09:59 ? 00:00:00 asm_pmon_+ASM
        grid 26858 25786 0 10:35 pts/1 00:00:00 grep pmon

      • aychin September 13, 2012 at 08:48

        Sure, You can’t start OHAS because it can’t function without reading parameters from OLR file. At Your first comment the spfile information was read from memory. Also, linux uses inodes to access files, when You start the process it finds the file by name, but on the system level it uses its inode as file descriptor to manipulate it. When You move file (mv) the inode will not change, and because process uses inode it continues to use this file without the problem! You can fill the difference only after the restart of the process, that is why I asked You to do that. Same situation will occur if You will delete file, until process uses it it will be not actually deleted until the process will release this file. For example, on test database create tablespace with one datafile, then rm this file, You will still able to use this tablespace, write to it and read from it.

  15. raj November 5, 2012 at 10:04

    great one. thanks

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  17. paperielane December 8, 2012 at 06:34

    Hello Aychin,

    I’m not using oracle asmlib on my test RAC installation here since the rpm for oracle linux 6 was not available at the time I installed it.

    my current value for the asm_diskstring parameter is /dev/asm*
    Let’s just say that I’m stupid enough to change that value to something else, then I stop all services and obviously I won’t be able to start the asm instance anymore.
    How can I fix it?

    Thanks in advance for your answer.

    Regards,
    Adhika

    • aychin December 10, 2012 at 07:53

      Hi Adhika,

      If You can’t start ASM instance becuase of wrong asm_diskstring parameter, it is not a big problem. You just need to update the OLR entry for asm_diskstring parameter. You can use srvctl to do it:

      srvctl modify asm -d /dev/asm*

      Now You will able to start ASM instance.
      Regards.

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  31. Mahesh Badgujar July 15, 2013 at 21:41

    Dear Aychin,

    Recently, I got issue with my database due to all LUNS went offline and after that my database is not working and it looks that there is issue with ASM.. I cannot run the Oracle listener and database as it gives error while starting the database. This issue started since we got an error from EMC Storage that all LUNS are dead and after restarting the Operating system.. The EMC Storage LUNS issue was solved but the database never got started. I am looking for help and think that I lost my diskgrop which was on Storage but EMC is not ready to take responsibility. Is it possible for you to help me? The

    [root@psdb1 root]# cat /etc/oratab
    #

    # This file is used by ORACLE utilities. It is created by root.sh
    # and updated by the Database Configuration Assistant when creating
    # a database.

    # A colon, ‘:’, is used as the field terminator. A new line terminates
    # the entry. Lines beginning with a pound sign, ‘#’, are comments.
    #
    # Entries are of the form:
    # $ORACLE_SID:$ORACLE_HOME::
    #
    # The first and second fields are the system identifier and home
    # directory of the database respectively. The third filed indicates
    # to the dbstart utility that the database should , “Y”, or should not,
    # “N”, be brought up at system boot time.
    #
    # Multiple entries with the same $ORACLE_SID are not allowed.
    #
    #
    +ASM1:/u02/app/oracle/product/10.2.0/psdb:N
    PSDB:/u02/app/oracle/product/10.2.0/psdb:N

    —–
    drwxr-x— 15 oracle oinstall 4096 May 5 2007 inventory
    drwxr-x— 7 oracle oinstall 4096 May 5 2007 cfgtoollogs
    drwxr-xr-t 3 oracle oinstall 4096 May 5 2007 log
    drwxr—– 3 oracle oinstall 4096 May 6 2007 psdb1_PSDB1
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    drwxr-x— 8 oracle oinstall 4096 May 6 2007 racg
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    drwxr-xr-x 3 root root 4096 Jul 21 2010 admin
    drwxr-xr-x 2 oracle oinstall 8192 Jul 8 10:13 bin
    -rw-r–r– 1 root root 1577 Jul 11 09:12 listener.log
    drwxr-x— 2 oracle oinstall 4096 Jul 15 22:50 dbs
    [root@psdb1 10.2.0]# ls -lrt
    total 4
    drwxr-x— 58 oracle oinstall 4096 Jul 4 13:50 psdb
    [root@psdb1 10.2.0]# cd psdb1_PSDB1
    -bash: cd: psdb1_PSDB1: No such file or directory
    [root@psdb1 10.2.0]#
    [root@psdb1 10.2.0]# tail -100f listner.log
    tail: listner.log: No such file or directory
    tail: no files remaining

    ————

    [oracle@psdb1 localhost]$ sqlplus ‘/as sysdba’

    SQL*Plus: Release 10.2.0.2.0 – Production on Mon Jul 15 23:20:51 2013

    Copyright (c) 1982, 2005, Oracle. All Rights Reserved.

    Connected to an idle instance.

    SQL> startup
    ORA-01565: error in identifying file ‘+DATA/PSDB/spfilePSDB.ora’
    ORA-17503: ksfdopn:2 Failed to open file +DATA/PSDB/spfilePSDB.ora
    ORA-15077: could not locate ASM instance serving a required diskgroup
    SQL>

    ——-

    [oracle@psdb1 localhost]$ lsnrctl status

    LSNRCTL for Linux: Version 10.2.0.2.0 – Production on 15-JUL-2013 23:21:16

    Copyright (c) 1991, 2005, Oracle. All rights reserved.

    Connecting to (ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcp)(HOST=)(PORT=1521))
    TNS-12541: TNS:no listener
    TNS-12560: TNS:protocol adapter error
    TNS-00511: No listener
    Linux Error: 111: Connection refused

    ——-

    [oracle@psdb1 localhost]$ asmcmd
    ORA-01034: ORACLE not available
    ORA-27101: shared memory realm does not exist
    Linux Error: 2: No such file or directory (DBD ERROR: OCISessionBegin)

    ——

    [root@psdb1 init.d]# powermt display
    Symmetrix logical device count=0
    CLARiiON logical device count=7
    ==============================================================================
    —– Host Bus Adapters ——— —— I/O Paths —– —— Stats ——
    ### HW Path Summary Total Dead IO/Sec Q-IOs Errors
    ==============================================================================
    0 QLogic Fibre Channel 2300 optimal 14 0 – 0 0
    1 QLogic Fibre Channel 2300 optimal 14 0 – 0 0

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